Inter process communication

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Inter process communication

Inter-Process Communication (IPC) refers to the communication process between the two parallel or unparallel processes. It originally happens in a single operating system. IPC can be classified in two ways:

  1. Concerned methods introducing from only one method or process, like child and parent methods or processes.

  2. Between processes which are not related, or two or more than two different methods or processes.

The following are a few very important terminologies that we require to understand before heading more on inter-process communication in the operating system.

  1. Pipes: message among two related methods or processes. The technique is half-duplex type means the first method connects with the second method. To accomplish a full-duplex technique that is, for the 2nd method to convey with the 1st method another pipe is needed.

  2. FIFO: this type is Communication among two unconnected methods. FIFO is a full-duplex type first in first out, significance the first instruction can convey a message with the second instruction and second instruction can convey a message with the first instruction at the same time.

  3. Message Queues: Convey message among two or more two methods with full-duplex ability. The methods will convey with each other by sending a message and recovering it out of the waiting line. Once fetched, the information is no longer accessible in the waiting line.

  4. Shared Memory: conveying messages among two or more than two processes is obtained via a shared space of memory between all methods. The shared type of memory requirements to be locked from each other by coordinating retrieve to all the methods.

  5. Semaphores: Semaphores are defined as coordinating retrieval to multiple methods. When one method desires to retrieve the memory for writing and reading, it requires to be protected and announced when the access is deleted. This requires to be replicated by all the procedures to data security.

  6. Signals: Signal is a term to use for communication among multiple methods employing signaling. This describes that a source method will propel a signal which is known by number and the terminus process or method will grip it appropriately.


Process information


Before starting the information of process, we require to understand a few concepts, like:

Q. What is meant by the process?

Answer: A process is a code or program in implementation and execution.

Q. What is meant by the program?

Answer: A code is a file covering the data of a method and in what to construct it throughout the run time.

Q. At what time, you start the implementation of the program?

Answer: It is filled into Random Access Memory and leads executing.


every technique is established with an exclusive positive type integer number called as process ID or called PID that Process Identification number. The kernel typically bounds the process Identification, which is configurable. When the process ID touches this boundary, it again gets reset, which is behind the process range of the system. The idle procedure Identification from that worktop is then allocated to recently made processes.


Process image


here we have already seen that, how to get the essential data of process or method and its process that is parent, it is now time to see into the particulars of program or process information.

If we talk about the exact meaning of process image, then Process image is an executable data file needed at the time of executing the code or program. This processed image normally includes the sections which are given below:

  1. text segment or Code segment

  2. Stack segment

  3. Heap segment

  4. Data segment

the basic type of pictorial configuration of the process image is shown below:

Process Images


Process image components

Basic components of process image are explained below:

  1. Code segment: it is a fraction of an object file or virtual address space of a program that includes of executable program or code. This is typically read-only type data or information section and has a rigid size.

The data segment is again divided into two types.

  • Initialized data segment

  • Un-initialized data segment

  1. Data segment: it is writing or read, from the time when the significances of variables might be altered during the time of the run. This type of segment, in addition, has a rigid size.

  2. Stack segment: it is a part of memory space assigned for routine variables and parameters of the function. It, in addition, saves a return space or address at the time of executing function or method calls. Stack applies Last in First Out which is called LIFO. LIFO mechanism for saving

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    Process creation and termination:

    Now we understand that as we implement or execute a code then a method is made and could be finished after the completion of the execution. What if we require to make a method within the code and it might be desired to arrange a different task on time for it.

    Creation of Process is obtained via the function called fork () system call. The recently made method is known as the child method and process and the method that started it, it is called the parent type process. After the function fork () system call, we are having 2 processes:

    1. parent processes and

    2. child processes.

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